Burial system


According to historical records, thTicou” structure in tomb burial existed no later that the Warring States period, but there is no physical evidence. The existing Han archaeological materials showed that the basic characteristic of “Ticou” structure is tile layers upon tile layers by stacking vertically. There is often no tenon; the second is that "wood are introverted”, that is, square wood stacked around the wall was in a vertical direction against the wall wood in the same side in the coffin room. If it was seen from the inside, only the head of square wood were in sight. The name of “Ticou” was,then, derived in this particular way. “Huangchang” was fthe pine wood used in making “Ticou”.


This particular burial system – “Huangchangticou”, have been existing no later than the Warring States period according to the literature, but there is no physical evidence. It was popular in the Qin and Han dynasties, and was applied less after Han Dynasty. It was mainly used when emperors and their wives, as well as the emperor's minions franchise were died. In old days, people could only get superficial knowledge about it in literature. Until 1974 when Beijing Great Celebrex was unearthed, people began to get to know this particular burial system from archaeological practice. Due to its high standards and short popular period, it is rare. So far, there were only ten more unearthed “Huangchangticou” tomb burials. In all the same type of tomb burials, those of Liuxu and the queen in Guangling are the best preserved ones. They have the most complex structures. And the most sophisticated materials are used to produce the most sophisticated and the most typical form of "Huangchangticou" coffin tomb.

Burial structure

Guangling Tomb coffin room is 16.65 meters long from north to south, 14.2 meters in width from east to west and 4.5 meters high, covering an area of 237 square meters. It has consumed 540 cubic meters of Phoebe. It is composed of Tibetan coffin from the outside, Huangchangticou, East Room, West Wing, the center coffin, the inside coffin, Bian room and Zigong (inside and outside double coffins). The tomb is centered on the hall of the first room, with one front chamber and one back chamber, as well as one room at each side. It reflects the typical style of the architecture in Han Dynasty. It is actually the epitome of an ancient palace building stored under the ground. It is a great achievement of wooden architecture in the Han Dynasty. It has applied part wooden structure recorded in the “French building style" in Song Dynasty 1,100 years in advance. It is a miracle in architectural history.

The tomb coffin of the Queen is 18.35 meters long from north to south, 11.06 wide from east to west and 4.5 meters high, covering a total area of 182.85 square meters and consuming about 450 cubic meters of Phoebe. The structure is composed of mound, pit, north and south ramps, hiding coffin, Tibet coffin etc. The hiding coffin is made of Ticou, the center coffin, the inside coffin, the east room and the west room. The outer Tibet Burial coffin is to the front south of the hiding coffin. In the coffin, 12 carriage rides were unearthed, just like a large horse carriage library.

Tenon Technique

Tenon refers to concave-convex connecting way used in two wood components. The projecting portion is called tenon (or tenon) and the recessed portion is called Mao (or mortise, tongue and groove). The mortise and tenon bite together to play a connecting role. This is the main structure of ancient Chinese architecture, furniture and other wooden instruments. Tenon structure is a combination of tenon and mortise. It is an ingenious combination of small and big, tall and short wood, as well as long and short pieces of wood. It can effectively control the wood in twisting to other directions. Tenon is an extremely clever invention. It is a structure way that enables the traditional Chinese wooden structure to breakthrough contemporary architecture bent frame or special flexible frame structure. It can not only bear a greater load, but also allow a certain deformation. Under the earthquake, it is able to offset a certain seismic energy through deformation, so as to reduce the seismic response of the structure.

Each timber component of Liu Xu and his wife’s tomb are different in sizes. The tongue and groove joints on four sides scattered orderly. There are even more than 15 tongue and groove joints on one face, but they are closely jointed. Even the thinnest blade cannot be inserted to it. It can be described as uncanny. Ticou are stacked and connected layers by layers closely. Fixed and fine, it seems like a Rubik's Cube. Once one is placed wrongly, it cannot be undone. Falcon tenon is very carefully made. On an entire wooden coffin, there is no nail and tenons are used connect it, having presented the fine woodworking craft in Han Dynasty.

To record text

Numerous texts are unearthed in tombs of emperors and queens in Guangling. The content includes words indicating orientation, installation location, order, components name, official name and the nature and usage of the goods and so on. In the Queen’s tomb, dozens of wooden slips are unearthed. The wide-ranging content is of high value. For example, there is date of " August, xx62 ......" They have provided physical basis and facilitated the research on identity of the tomb. Method of writing includes paint writing, ink, and knife graving. It has not only facilitated the assembly of wooden coffin components and provided facts for the in-depth study of the components of "Huangchangticou", but also provided valuable information for the study of officials system, food and goods system, weights and measures, and the art of calligraphy in Han Dynasty.

Funerary artifacts

Although, the tombs of emperors and queens in Guangling had been stolen in early days, nearly a thousand pieces of cultural relics are still unearthed. Many of them are valuable goods, jade wall, Yuhuan, smoked copper, copper crossbow, copper wheel, BU pottery, clay, paint case, wooden figurines, horse carriages as well as a set of eating utensils and appliances, covering from ritual burial system, household items, tools of production, transportation, entertainment, toys and inscriptions. They have fully reflected the rich material civilization and colorful culture life of Yangzhou in Han Dynasty. It is also not difficult to see from them the rich burial custom and the luxury court life in the Western Han Dynasty.